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The Home Immunomodulators of the Last Generation

Doctors of any specialties come to collide with clinical appearances of the immune system insufficiency (in the first place it is appeared by presence of chronic inflammatory process or often relapsing diseases such as acute viral respiratory disease (ARVD), bronchitis, herpers, furunculosis, and other). However till now many people have prejudice relatively advisability of immunomodulators use. This opinion is formed on the one hand as consequence of interpretation's complication and frequently impossibility of fulfillment of immunologic analyses, but on the other hand - low effectiveness of immunomodulators of the first generation. However during the last 10 years is extended knowledge about that how immune system works and new higher effective safe preparations are created, without applying of which treatment of many diseases is impossible today.
At the present scheme all immunomodulators are really present on the pharmaceutical market in Russia. At present article a short characteristic only part of it is given, and namely the home immunomodulators of the last generation which is a striking example of home science achievements.
Immunomodulators - drug means, possessing immunotropic activities, which in therapeutic dosages restore functions of immune system functions (effective immune defence) (Khaitov R.M., Pinegin B.W.).
The most simple and comfortable immunomodulators classification in its origin worked out in the State Scientific Central "Institute of Immunology". According to this classification immunomodulators are divided into three groups: endogenous, exogenous, and synthetic. Immunoregulator peptides and cytokins and also its recombinant or synthetic analogies concern to immunomodulators of endogenous origin. The overwhelming majority of exogenous immunomodulators - these substances are of microbe origin on the whole, bacterial and fungous. To the third group of immunomodulators concern synthetic substances, received in the result of the directed chemical synthesis.


The immunomodulators of endogenous origin

At present time in quality of immunomodulators of endogenous origin immunoregulator peptides is applied. They are received from central organs of immunity (thymus and bone marrow, cytokines, interferons, effector proteins of immune systems (immunoglobulins).

Immunoregulator peptides received from central organs of immunity

Taktivin and Timalin concern to immunomodulators of the first generation, received on the basis of an extract of thymus tissue.
Taktivinis a preparation of polypeptide nature, received from the thymic gland of the large horned cattle. Taktivin normalize quantitative and functional indices of T-system immunity, stimulate production of lymphokins and other indices of cellular immunity. Apply in adults in complex therapy of infectious, purulent, septic processes, in lymphoproliferative diseases (lymphogranulomatosis, lymphoid leucosis) relapsing ophthalmoherpes and other diseases immunity accompanying advantage's defeat of T-system immunity. Timalin is a complex of polypeptide fractions, received from the thymic gland of the large horned cattle. Regulate the quantity of T- and B-lymphocytes, stimulate reaction of cellular immunity; strengthen of phagocytosis. Apply in adults and children in quality immunostimulator and biostimulator in complex therapy of diseases, accompanying by reducing of cellular immunity, including acute and chronic purulent processes, and inflammatory diseases, burn diseases and trophic ulcers and others, and also by immunity oppression hemopoietic function after radial or chemotherapy in oncological patients and other pathological processes.
All tymical preparations render soft immunomodulating effect, tied together mainly with the increasing of number and functional activities of T-lymphocytes. But they have one shortcoming: they represent themselves indivisible mixture of biologically active peptides and they are difficulty standardized. Progress in the field of immunomodulators of thymical origin went on the line of creation of the second and third generation preparations, representing themselves' synthetic analogies of natural thymus hormones or fragments of these hormones, possessing biological activities.

The first preparation, received in that direction, becomes Timogen - synthetic dipeptid, consisting of amino-acid's residuum - glutamin and triptofan. On indicating to applying it is similar to other thymical immunomodulators and uses in complex therapy in adults and children by acute and chronic infectious diseases, conducting and reducing indices of cellular immunity by oppression reparative processes after severe traumata (bones fractures), necrosis processes and also by different states of immunodeficit.

Next stage in creation of thymical preparations becomes isolation of biologic active fragment-one of the thymic hormones - timopoietin and creation on its basic preparation Imunofan, representing itself 32-36 amino-acid residuum of timopoietin. Imunofan show's itself highly effective mean of restoration of disturbances of immunological reactivity by chronic bacterial and viral infections, surgical infections. Besides stimulation of immunological reactivity, Imunofan possesses expressed ability to activate antioxydant system of the organism.
These two properties of Imunofan allow to recommend it to the complex therapy of oncological patients not only for up lifting of immunity, but also for elimination of toxic free radical and peroxide connections. Imunofan applies also by hepatitis B, opportunist infections by AIDS patients, brucellosis, no long healing wounds of extremities, purulent-septic postoperative complications: burn shock, acute burn toxemia, associative trauma. Imunofan applies for immunocorrection of allergic diseases and permits for using in pediatry.
Myelopid refers to the immunomodulators, received from the bone marrow of mammals (pigs or calves). In Myelopid's composition go in six specific for bone marrow mediators of immune response, named myelopeptides (MP). These substances possess ability to stimulate different sections of immune response, especially humoral immunity. Each MP possesses definite biological action, totality of which stipulates its clinical effect. MP1 restores nominal balance activities of T-helpers and T-suppressors. MP2 suppresses proliferation of malignant cells and considerably reduce ability of tumoral cells to produce toxic substances, suppressing functional activity of T-lymphocytes. MP3 stimulates activity of phagocytes, and consequently raises antiinfection immunity. MP4 renders influence on differentiation of hemopoietic cells, promoting its more quickly ripening that is mean possesses leukopoietic effect. By immunodeficient states preparation restores indices of B- and T immunity of systems, stimulates antibodies' production and functional activity of immunocompetent cells, promotes restoration of the number of other indices of humoral immunity section.
Myelopid is applied by the secondary immunodeficent states in adults with the primary defeat of the humoral section of the immunity, including prevention of infectious complications, after surgical interventions, traumata, osteomyelitis and other pathological processes, accompanying inflammatory complications, by non-specific pulmonary diseases of the chronic respiratory tract in the exacerbation's stage, (laryngitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, pneumonia); by chronic pyoderma, atopic dermatitis, neurodermatitis and others, by acute lymphoblastic and myeloblastic leykosis and non-Hodgkin's of T- and B- cellular lymphomas.




Cytokins are low molecular hormones similar biomoleculs, produced activated immunocompetent cells and being regulators of intercellular interactions. There are several groups - interleukins (12 different interleukins), growth factors (epidermal, factor of nerve growth), coloniestimulating factors, chemotaxis factors, factor of tumor necrosis. Interleukins are the main participants of the development of immune response on microorganisms' introduction, formation of inflammatory reactions and realization of antitumoral immunity and others.
Turning out of two recombinant interleukines: Betaleukin and Ronkoleukin are assimilated in Russia.
Betaleukin is a recombinant interleukin-1-beta man (IL-1). Monocytes and macrophages realize mainly IL-1 production. Synthesis IL-1 begins with the response of microorganisms' introduction or disturbance of tissue and launches the complex of defending reactions, composing the first line of organism defence.
One of the main properties of IL-1 concludes in ability to stimulate functions and increases the number of leukocytes. Betaleukin increases the interferon productions and an interleukins increase out put of antibodies, increases the number of thrombocytes, accelerates reparative processes in damaged tissues.
Indication to Betaleukin applying in quality of immunostimulator is the secondary immunodeficent states, developing after severe trauma (in the result of purulent-septic and purulent destructive processes, after extensive surgical interventions, and also by chronic septic states. Indication to Betaleukin applying in quality of stimulator of leucopoiesis is toxic leukopenia II-IY degrees complicating chime-radio therapy by malignant tumors.
Ronkoleukin is a recombinant interleukin-2 man (IL-2). IL-2 produces in organism of T-lymphocytes-helpers and carries out the key-role in the process of initiation and the development of immune response. The preparation stimulates the proliferation of T-lymphocytes, activates them, in the result of that they turn into cytotoxic and killing cells, which are capable to destroy various pathogenic microorganisms and malignant cells. IL-2 strengthens the formation of immunoglobulins by B-cells, makes more active the function of monocytes and tissue macrophages. In general, IL-2 possesses immunomodulating action, directed to strengthening of antibacterial, antiviral, antimycotic and antitumoral immune response.
Ronkoleukin is applied in complex treatment of sepsis and severe infectious-inflammatory processes of different localization (peritonitis, endometritis, abscesses, meningitis, mediastinitis, osteomyelitis, pancreatitis, paranephritis, pyelonephritis, pneumonia, pleyritis, salpingitis, phlegmon of soft tissues), and also burn disease, tuberculosis, chronic hepatitis C, mycosis, chlamydiosis, chronic herpes. Ronkoleukin in combination with alpha-interferon is effective immunotherapeutic mean in treatment of disseminated kidney cancer. The high effectiveness of preparation is established in treatment of the urinary bladder cancer, colorectal cancer of the III-IY stages, tumor of the brain malignant disseminated skin melanoma, malignant mammals' neoplasms, prostatic gland cancer and ovaries cancer.




Interferons are protective substances of proteins nature, which is worked out by cells in the response of penetration of viruses and also on influence of the number of natural, synthetic connections (interferon inductors). Interferons are factors nonspecific defence of the organism from viruses, bacteria, chlamydies, pathogenic us fungi, tumor cells, but at the same time they may be regulators of intercellular interactions to the immune system. From this point of that position they refer to immunomodulators of endogenous origin.
Three types of human interferons are separated: alfa-interferon (leukocytic), beta-interferon (fibroblastic) and gamma-interferon (immune). Gamma-interferon has less antiviral activity, but fulfils the more important immunoregulatoring role. Mechanism of interferon action may be represented schematically by the following manner: interferons are connected in the cell with the specific receptor that leads to cell synthesis about 30 proteins which supply above mentioned higher effects of interferon. In particularly, regulator peptides are synthesized, they prevent the penetration of viruses in to cell, synthesis of a new viruses in cell, stimulate activity of cytotoxic of T- lymphocytes and macrophages.
In Russia the history of creation of interferon preparations begins from 1967, when human leukocytic interferon was for the first time created and introduced in to clinical practice for prophylaxis and treatment of grippe and ARVD. At present time in Russia several modern preparations of alfa-interferons are produced, which on their technology of receiving are divided into natural and recombinant.
The representative of the new generation of natural interferons is a Leukocytic interferon for injections, containing all subtypes of alfa-interferons in natural, physiological correlation. Apply in oncology in complex treatment of melanoma, kidney cancer and ovaries cancer and others.
Leukinferon is a complex preparation, containing 10.000 ME of natural alfa-interferon and complex of cytokins of the first phase of the immune response (interleukins 1,6 and 12, factor of tumor necrosis, factors of inhibition migration of macrophages and leukocytes). Besides antiviral activity preparation possesses the wide spectrum of immunomodulating action in particularly is capable to activate practically all stages of phagocytic process. Leukinferon is applied for the treatment of many viral diseases, bacterial infections, including sepsis and tuberculosis, chlamidial, mucoplasmic, herpetic infections, oncological diseases.
Eye drops Lokferon contain also cleaning and concentrated human leukocytic interferon with activity of 8.000 ME in the bottle. Apply by treatment eyes diseases of viral etiology.
Rectal introduction of interferon preparation is a new direction. Apply of interferon in the view of suppositories supplies a simple, safe, painless way of introducing, support of containing in blood high interferon concentration during the longer period of time. In Russia such natural interferons as Human leukocytic interferon in suppositories is produced with the activity of 40.000 ME in suppository and Suppositoferon with activity of 10.000, 20.000 or 30.000 ME. Different immunodeficent states, acute and chronic viral hepatitis, urogenital infections, and disbacteriosis, ARVD, measles, and chickenpox in adults and children use these preparations.
Technology of production of natural interferons has definite limitations connected with necessity of large quantities of leykomasses and complicity receiving in enough quantity of interferons with high activity. Gene-engineering method of receiving recombinant interferon permits to overcome these obstacles, and also gene-engineering method gives the possibility to receive in clean kind the different interferon sorts. 5 home preparations of recombinant interferon-alfa2b are produced.
Reaferon-TC intended for intramuscular injections is applied for the treatment of viral infections and also for treatment of some oncologic diseases in adults and children. Recombinant Interferon alfa-2 is analog to Reaferon is carried out and produced by State science research Institute' "Especially Clean biopreparations".
Viferon, including in its composition interferon-alfa2b, and also antioxidants of vitamin E and ascorbic acid. Viferon is turned out in the form of rectal suppositories, in four dosages: on 150.000 ME, on 500.000 ME, on 1.000.000 ME and 3.000.000 ME in suppository, and also in the form of ointment contains in 1 gr. 200.000 ME interferon activity. Indices to application are considerably enlarged in Viferon in comparison with the other preparations of interferon may be practically applied at any infectious pathology at any age group. Viferon renders more spare action on immune system in weakened patients, premature children and newborns, with unripe and uncompleted mechanisms of antiviral and antimicrobic defence. Therefore Viferon is single interferon preparations is recommended for treatment not only of adults, but also newborn children and pregnant women. It is especial actually for treatment of viral and a bacterial and chlamidious infection in pregnant and newborns, when using of other preparations is contraindicated.
Grippferon is a new drug form of interferon-alfa2b, indicated for using in species of nose drops. Grippferon is used for prophylaxis and treatment of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections.
Kipferon - is a combined preparation, containing of recombinant interferon-alfa2b and CIP (mixture of human immunoglobulins of M, A, G classes). Kipferon is vaginally applied in complex therapy of herpetic infection pappilomas, condylomas of genital organs, bacterial colpitis of different etiology (staphylococcic, trichimonadic, chlamidious and others), vagina disbacteriosis accompanying inflammatory processes of neck, body and appendages of uterus, preparation to plan gynecologic operations and deliveries for the purpose of prophylaxis of purulent-septic complications. Kipferon is rectally applied in therapy of infection of urino-genital organs, acute and chronic prostatitis.



The curative serums are prototypes of the modern immoglobulin preparations and some of which (antidiphtheric and antitetanus serums) and up till now do not lose its clinical importance. However the development of technology of processing blood preparations allows to incarnate ideas of passive immunization first in species of concentrated immunoglobulin preparations for intramuscular injection, and then immunoglobulins for intravenous injection. For a long time effectiveness of immunoglobulin preparations are exclusively explained at the expense of passive transfer of antibodies. Connecting with corresponding antigens, antibodies neutralize them, transfer into insoluble form in the result of that phagocytosis mechanism are started, dependent complement lysis and following antigenous elimination from the organism. However, last years in connection with the proofing of effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulins by some autoimmune diseases proper immunomodulating role of immunoglobulins are actively studied. So intravenous immunoglobulins are found the ability to change of interleukins production and level receptors expression to IL-2. Also influence of immunoglobulins preparation on activity of different subpopulation of T-lymphocytes and stimulating action on phagocytosis processes is demonstrated.
Intramuscular immunoglobulins, using in the clinic from 50th years, have relatively low bioaccessibility. Resorption of the preparation comes true from the injection place during 2-3 days and more half of preparation exposes to destruction of proteolytic ferments. In Russia is turned out intramuscular immunoglobulins containing higher titres antibodies to antigens of definite stimulus: virus of tick-borne, influenza, herpes, cytomegalovirus, HBs - antigen. Intravenous immunoglobulins have essential advances so it's applying permit in the shortest frists to create in blood effective antibody concentrations. At present time in Russia the whole row of Human immunoglobulins for intravenous injection is turned out (enterprises "Imbio", "Immunopreparation", Ekaterinburg and Khabarovsk-state enterprise on biopreparation production). However (intravenous immuglobulins of foreign enterprises are considered more effective (Pentaglobin, Cytotect, Intraglobin, Gepatekt, Oktagam, Sandoglobulin, Biaven B.U., Venoglobulin).
Intravenous immunoglobulins are applied by primary immunodeficiences (agammaglobulinemia, selective deficience JgG and others), hypogammaglobulinemia, by chronic lymphoid leucosis, thrombocytopenic purpura, others auto immune diseases, and also by severe viral bacterial infections, sepsis, for prophylaxis of infectious complications in premature children.

Complex immunoglobulins preparation (CIP) contains human immunoglobulins of 3 classes: JgA (15-25 %), JgM (15-25 %) and JgG (50-70 %). CIP distinguishes the high contents of JgA and JgM, heightening concentration of antibodies to gram-negative enteropathogenic bacteria, of intestinal group (shigella, salmonella, Erscherichia and others) high antibodies concentration to rotaviruses, and also peroral method of application. CIP is used by acute intestinal infections, disbacteriosis, chronic enterocolitis, allergodermatitis, combined with intestinal dysfunction..
Near to immunoglobulins preparations in the plan of passive transfer of immunity is Afinoleukin preparation. Afinoleikin contains of complex low molecular proteins of human leukocytic extract being capable to transfer immunoreactiveness to antigens of generally used infectious diseases (herpes, staphylococcus, streptococcus, mycobacteria of tuberculosis and others), and afinocommunicating with them. Afinoleukin introduction goes to induction of immunity in relation to the antigens; immunological memory to them possesses leukocytic donors. Preparation went clinical tests by treatment of simple herpes, circular lichen, hepatitis, and adenoviral infections in additions to the main therapy not given waiting results.


Immunomodulators of exogenous origin


Bacterial and fungous origin preparations refer to immunomodulators of exogenous origin. To medical applying is permitted such means of microbial origin as BCG, Pirogenal, Prodigiosan, Nucleinat natrium, Ribomunil, Bronchomunal and others. All of them posess ability to strengthen functional activity of neutrophils and macrophages. Already more than half of century immumodulating role of tuberculosis mycobacteria is known. At present time BCG vaccine has no independent significance in a quality of immunomodulator. Exception concerns the method of immune therapy of urinary bladder cancer, with applying vaccine "BCG-Imuron". Vaccine "BCG-Imuron" represents itself living lyophilizing bacteria vaccine BCG1 strain. Preparation is applied in the kind of instillation in the urine bladder. The living mycobacteria propagating themselves intracellular bring to nonspecific stimulation of cell immune response. "BCG-Imuron" is intended for prophylaxis of relapse of superficial cancer of urinary bladder after operative tumor remove and also for treatment of small tumors of urinary bladder, removing of which is impossible.
Studying mechanism of immunomodulating action of BCG vaccine showed, that it is reproduced with the help of inner layer of cell wall of tuberculosis of mycobacteria - peptidoglikan, while in the composition with peptidoglikan an active beginning is the muramildipeptid. Muramildipeptid enters contain of peptidoglikan of cell wall is practically all known as grampositive and also gramnegative bacteria. However in the strength of high pyrogeness and other unfavorable side effects muramildipeptid itself renders unfitness for clinical use. Therefore the search of its structural analogies begins. So preparation (glucozaminilmuramildipeptid) Likopid appears which possesses on a level with low pyrogeness of higher immunomodulating potential.
Likopid produces immunomodulating action before all at the expense of cell activation of immune phagocytic system (neutrophils and macrophages). The latter by means of phagocytosis destroys the pathogenic microorganisms and at the same time secretates mediators of the natural immunity - cytokins (interleukin-1, factor of tumor necrosis, colonies-stimulating factor, gamma-interferon), which acting on wide spectrum of cell - targets, cause the further development of protective organism reactions. At the last summary Likopid influences upon the all three main immunity sections: phagocytosis, cell and humoral immunity, stimulates leukopoiesis and regenerative processes.
The main indications to Likopid appointment: chronic non-specific diseases of lungs as in the stage of aggravation and also remission, acute and chronic purulent inflammatory processes (postoperative, posttraumatic, wound), trophic ulcers, tuberculosis; acute and chronic viral infections, especially genital and labial herpes, herpetic keratitis and keratouveitis, circular lichen; cytomegaloviral infection; disturbances of neck of uterus, caused by virus of human pappilomas, bacterial and candidous vaginitis, urogenital infections.
Deserving of Likopid is its possibility of use in pediatry, including neanatology. Likopid uses by treatment of bacterial pneumonia in maturity and premature children. Likopid is applied in complex treatment of chronic viral hepatitis in children. Though Likopid is capable to stimulate ripening of glukuroniltransferase of liver of newborn children, its effectiveness is tested by conjugative hyperbilirubinanemia in neonatal period.


Synthetic immunomodulators

Synthetic immunomodulators are received by means of directed chemical synthesis. To this group concern long ago known preparations as Levamisol (Dekaris) and Diuzifon.
The representative Polioxidony of this new generation is synthetic immunomodulators - Polioxidony. (Polioxidony is an oxygenated derivative polyetilenpiperosin with high molecular weight). Preparation possesses the wide spectrum of action. It stimulates the functional activity of phagocytes, that occurs in high phagocytic activities to absorb and digest microbes, in formation of active oxygen forms, rising of migration activity of neutrophils. Summary consequences of factors activation natural immunity is rising of stability to bacterial and viral infections. Polioxidony rises also the functional activity of T-and- B lymphocytes, NK - cells. It is also a powerful detoxicant, because possesses ability to sorb on its surfaces the different toxic substances, goes them on from the organism. It is ability to reduce the toxicity of a number of remedies is connected with it.
The preparation showed high effectiveness of all acute and chronic infection-inflammatory processes of any localization and any origin. Its applying is more quickly stopping of disease and disappearance of all pathologic displays. In the strength of its immunomodulating, detoxizilising, antioxidant, membranostabilising properties of Polioxidony engages the leading position in urology, gynecology, surgery, pulmonary, allergology and oncologic practice. The preparation is fine connected with all antibiotics, antiviral and antifungous means, with interferons and its inductors and goes into the complex schemes of treatment of many infectious diseases. Polioxidony is one of the not many immunomodulators, recommended for applying by acute infectious and allergic processes.
Glutoxim is the first and only singe respresentative of the new substance class - thiopoietins. Glutoxim represents itself chemically synthesized gexapeptid (bis-(gamma-L-glutamil)-L-zisteinil-bis-glizin dinatrium salt), being structural analogy of natural metabolite - oxygenated glutation. Artificial stabilization disulfide connection oxygenated glutation permits repeatedly to strengthen physiological effects; inherent to natural nonmodifying oxygenated glutation.
Glutoxim activates antiperoxide ferments, glutationreductase, glutationtransferase and glutationperoxidase, which in their turn activate intercellular reactions of thiol exchange and also processes of synthesis, sulfur and phosphorus containing macroergetic connections, which is necessary for normal functioning intercellular regulatoring systems. The work of cell in a new oxygenated restoration regime and change of dynamics of phosphorylating of key-blocks-signal transferring systems and transcriptional factor in the first place of immunocompetent cells define immunomodulating and systemic cytoprotectoring effect of the preparation. Special Glutoxim property is ability to render differential influence on normal (stimulation of proliferation and differentiation) and transformed (induction of apoptosis) - genetic programming swarm cells. To the main immunophysiological properties of preparation refer activation of phagocytes system; strengthening of medullar hemopoiesis and restoration of level of neutrophiles, monocytes in peripheral blood; increasing of endogenous production IL-1, IL-6, TNF, INF, erythropoietin, reproduction of effects IL-2 by means of induction of expression of its receptors.
Glutoxim is applied in the quality of means of prophylaxis and treatment of the secondary immunodeficient states, associated with radioactive, chemical, infectious factors; by tumors of any localization as a component antitumoral therapy for the purpose of rising of perceptibility of tumoral cells to chemotherapy including by development of partial or total resistance by acute and chronic viral hepatitis B and hepatitis C with liquidation of objective signs of chronic carriage of viruses; for potentiation curative effects of antibacterial therapy of chronic obstructive lungs diseases; for prophylaxis of postoperative purulent complications; for rising organism stability to different pathological influences - infectious agents, chemical or physical factors (intoxication, radiation and etcetera).
Active component of a new immunomodulator Galavit is a derivative phthalgidrosidis. Galavit possesses anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties. Its main pharmacological effects stipulate capability to influence on functional and metabolic activity of macrophages. By inflammatory diseases the preparation is reversible during 6-8 hours, inhibits excessive synthesis of factor of tumor necrosis, interleukin-1, active forms of oxygen and other inflammatory cytokins by means of hyperactivated macrophages, determining degree of inflammatory reactions, their recurrence, and also expression of intoxication. Normalization of regulating function of macrophages brings to lowering autoagression level. Besides the influence on monocyto-macrophageous section, the preparation stimulates microbicidal system of neutrophilic granulocytes, strengthening of phagocytosis and raising nonspecifical resistance of the organism to infectious diseases, and also antimicrobic defence.
Galavit is applied to pathogenetic treatment of acute infectious diseases (intestinal infections, hepatitis, rose, purulent meningitis, diseases of urinogenital sphere, posttraumatic osteomyelitis, obstructive bronchitis, pneumonia) and chronic inflammatory diseases, including autoimmune component in pathogenesis (ulcer disease, non-specific colitis, Crohn's disease, defeat of liver of different etiology, sclerodermia, reactive arthritis, system lupus erythematous, Bechtchet's syndrome, rheumatism and others), the secondary immunology insufficiency, and also for correction of immunity by oncologic patients (before and postoperative period, receiving radial and chemotherapy, for prophylaxis of postoperative complications).
The most inductor-interferons concern also to synthetic immunomodulators. Interferon-inductors represent themselves heterogeneous on composition family of high and low molecular synthetic and natural connections, uniting ability to provoke in organism formation of personal endogenous interferon. Interferon inductors possess antiviral, immunomodulating and other distinctive effects for interferon.
Poludan (complex of poliadenylic and poliuridinal acids) is one of the most first inductors of interferon, applying in the 70th years. Its interferon inductious activity is not high. Poludan is used in species of eye drops and injections under conjunctiva by herpetic kerataconjuctivitis and also in kind of application by herpetic vulvo-vaginitis and colpitis.
Amixin is a low molecular interferon inductor, concerning to fluorens class. Amixin stimulates formation in organism all interferon kinds: ?, ? and g. Maximal interferon level in blood reaches approximately in 24 hours after taking of Amixin, raising in comparison with its initial value tens of time. The important peculiarity of Amixin is long circulation (up to 8 weeks) of therapeutic interferon concentration after the course taking of the preparation. Considerable and prolonged Amixin stimulation in working out of endogenous interferon provides its wide universal diapason of antiviral activity. Amixin also stimulates humoral immunal response, increasing production of IgM and IgG, restores correlation T-helpers/ T-suppressors. Amixin is applied for prophylaxis of influenza and other ARVD, treatment of severe forms of influenza, acute and chronic hepatitis B and C, relapsing genital herpes, cytomegaloviral infection, chlamydiosis, multiple sclerosis.
Neovir is low molecular interferon inductor (derivative carboxymethulcridon). Neovir introduces the high titres of endogenous interferon in organism, especially of early interferon-?. The preparation possesses immunomodulating, antiviral, antitumor activities. Neovir applies by viral hepatitis B and hepatitis C and also by urethritis, cervicitis, salpingitis of chlamidious etiology, viral encephalitis.
Cyclopheron is a preparation like Neovir (methylglucaminal salt of carboxymethyl kridon), mechanism of action and showing is similar such as in Neovir.
Jodantypirin (1 phenyl - 2,3 dimethyl - 4 - iodpyrazol - 5) - beta interferon inductor of "later type" essentially raises fibroblast activity and inducizes its antiviral resistance, detain of penetration of virus into the cell at the expense of stabilizing action on biological membranes, stimulates antibodies production. Apply for treatment and prophylaxis tick-borne encephalitis in adults.
Ridostin - is an interferon inductor on the basis of two spirals RNA of killing strains of yeast sacchromyces cerevisiae. Besides stimulation of interferon making, it activates phagocytes, natural killing cells and other processes, opposing infection. Ridostin is an effective by herpetic infection, chlamidiosis, ARVD, influenza.
Thus, to-day in doctors' hands there is the whole store of immunomodulators, intending for the great number of concrete cases. In the given sphere Russia passes ahead of many developed countries, where on 4-5 preparations are worked out and introduced, in Russia - tens. The presence of great number of immunomodulators must not frighten the practical doctors. The immune system consists of the whole row of narrowly connected in functional plan of components the task of which concludes in elimination from organism the heterologous substances of antigenous nature. Relatively specific agents may be in each component of this system. Era of immunocorregent therapy only begins, and after applying in clinical practice in the end will be selected the more effective preparations which as aspirin, cardiac glycosides, antibiotics and others, for a long time will come in the number of basis preparations by treatment one or another diseases.
As it is known, practice - the best criterion of the truth.

O.A. Miroshnik